Livermore is Alameda County, California, in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 90,189, Livermore is the most populous city in the Tri-Valley. Livermore is located on the eastern edge of California’s San Francisco Bay Area.
The Livermore Valley is located 10 miles (16 km) east of the first coastal range of foothills that surround the San Francisco Bay Area. The Livermore Valley has an east–west orientation with mountain passes on the west and east connecting the Bay Area and the Central Valley. The passes are used by railroads and highways to connect the two regions. Livermore Valley is about 15 miles (24 km) long (east to west), 10 miles (16 km) wide (north to south), and surrounded by California coastal range mountains and foothills.
Watercourses draining the city of Livermore include Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Valle, Arroyo Seco and Arroyo Las Positas. The principal aquifer underlying the city is the Mocho Subbasin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.2 square miles (65 km2), over 99% of it land. Several local seismic areas of activity lie near the city, including the Greenville Fault, Tesla Fault and the Livermore Fault.
The soil is primarily gravel with excellent drainage. The gravel is used in several gravel extraction sites outside the city. The gravelly soil and Mediterranean climate increases the flavor concentration in the grapes planted in the soil.
Livermore has a Mediterranean climate, although it is close to a semi-arid climate because of its relatively low annual precipitation. It features hot, dry summers and mild to cool winters with occasional rainfall (Köppen climate classification Csa). Summer (June–October) daytime temperatures average in the 75 to 85 °F (24 to 29 °C) range, but sometimes reach 100 °F (38 °C) and can occasionally approach 110 °F (43 °C). Summer nights, however, are normally much cooler, with lows in the 50 to 60 °F (10 to 16 °C) range. The valley’s passes direct the normal west to east flow of air through the valley. Usually there is a strong evening wind in the summer that brings cool air off the Pacific Ocean into the Livermore valley as it heads towards the much hotter Central Valley. This wind is strong enough with an average summer wind speed of about 9 miles per hour (14 km/h) and predictable enough to make the Livermore hills covered with wind turbines mounted in Altamont Pass. The period from June to September is extremely dry and is characterized by clear skies, but in late summer, subtropical moisture occasionally surges into the Livermore Valley, bringing high humidity, monsoon clouds, and, much less commonly, thunderstorms.
The public schools in Livermore are part of the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District (LVJUSD) with headquarters at 685 East Jack London Blvd.
The district has 11 elementary (K-5 and K-8) schools, three middle schools (grades 6-8), two comprehensive high schools, and three alternative high schools. As of the 2012–2013 school year, the public school superintendent was Kelly Bowers, who was hired by the elected school board in 2010.